The pending databaseΒΆ

The pending database is where various types of events which need confirmation are stored. These can include email address registration events, held messages (but only for user confirmation), auto-approvals, and probe bounces. This is not where messages held for administrator approval are kept.

In order to pend an event, you first need a pending database.

>>> from mailman.interfaces.pending import IPendings
>>> from zope.component import getUtility
>>> pendingdb = getUtility(IPendings)

There are nothing in the pendings database.

>>> pendingdb.count
0

The pending database can add any IPendable to the database, returning a token that can be used in urls and such.

>>> from zope.interface import implementer
>>> from mailman.interfaces.pending import IPendable
>>> @implementer(IPendable)
... class SimplePendable(dict):
...     pass

>>> subscription = SimplePendable(
...     type='subscription',
...     address='aperson@example.com',
...     display_name='Anne Person',
...     language='en',
...     password='xyz')
>>> token = pendingdb.add(subscription)
>>> len(token)
40

There’s exactly one entry in the pendings database now.

>>> pendingdb.count
1

You can confirm the pending, which means returning the IPendable structure (as a dictionary) from the database that matches the token. If the token isn’t in the database, None is returned.

>>> pendable = pendingdb.confirm(b'missing')
>>> print(pendable)
None
>>> pendable = pendingdb.confirm(token)
>>> dump_msgdata(pendable)
address     : aperson@example.com
display_name: Anne Person
language    : en
password    : xyz
type        : subscription

After confirmation, the token is no longer in the database.

>>> print(pendingdb.confirm(token))
None

There are a few other things you can do with the pending database. When you confirm a token, you can leave it in the database, or in other words, not expunge it.

>>> event_1 = SimplePendable(type='one')
>>> token_1 = pendingdb.add(event_1)
>>> event_2 = SimplePendable(type='two')
>>> token_2 = pendingdb.add(event_2)
>>> event_3 = SimplePendable(type='three')
>>> token_3 = pendingdb.add(event_3)
>>> pendable = pendingdb.confirm(token_1, expunge=False)
>>> dump_msgdata(pendable)
type: one
>>> pendable = pendingdb.confirm(token_1, expunge=True)
>>> dump_msgdata(pendable)
type: one
>>> print(pendingdb.confirm(token_1))
None

You can iterate over all the pendings in the database.

>>> pendables = list(pendingdb)
>>> def sort_key(item):
...     token, pendable = item
...     return pendable['type']
>>> sorted_pendables = sorted(pendables, key=sort_key)
>>> for token, pendable in sorted_pendables:
...     print(pendable['type'])
three
two

An event can be given a lifetime when it is pended, otherwise it just uses a default lifetime.

>>> from datetime import timedelta
>>> yesterday = timedelta(days=-1)
>>> event_4 = SimplePendable(type='four')
>>> token_4 = pendingdb.add(event_4, lifetime=yesterday)

Every once in a while the pending database is cleared of old records.

>>> pendingdb.evict()
>>> print(pendingdb.confirm(token_4))
None
>>> pendable = pendingdb.confirm(token_2)
>>> dump_msgdata(pendable)
type: two